Product and service pricing is a tricky strategy and depending on what is on offer − most notably a commodity, price increases can be very sensitive to the average consumer. How does a purveyor dance around this dilemma so as not to tick off its customer base? It takes several savvy and diligent tactics.
I begin by going over several types of pricing which a business will consider. These include:
Penetration Pricing: The price charged for products and services is set artificially low in order to gain market share. Once this is achieved, the price is increased.
Economy Pricing: This is a no-frills low price. The costs of marketing and promoting a product are kept to a minimum.
Price Skimming: When a higher price is charged because it has a substantial competitive advantage. However, the advantage tends to be unsustainable. The high price attracts new competitors into the market; however, the price inevitably falls due to increased supply.
Psychological Pricing: This approach is used when specific techniques are used to form a subconscious or psychological impact on consumers. The best example is when setting prices lower than a whole number such as 3.99 instead of 4.
Product Line Pricing: Selling a product at or below cost to incentivize customers and drive other sales. For example, a restaurant might offer a low-priced entrée with the purchase of a drink and dessert — both of which have higher profit margins.
Optional Product Pricing: A method applied to increase the amount customers spend once they begin to make a purchase. Optional ‘extras’, when purchased, increase the overall price of the product or service. Examples include computer printers and single pod coffee makers which mostly have a low initial entry price, whereas the cost of the ‘consumables’ or accessories, like printer ink cartridges and coffee pods, respectively, are much more profitable.
Captive Product Pricing: This occurs when an accessory product is necessary to purchase in order to use a core product. Examples of this include products such as razor blades for razors and toner cartridges for printers. This is also known as ‘By-product pricing’.
Promotional Pricing: Pricing to promote a product is a very common application. There are many examples of promotional pricing including approaches such as BOGOF (Buy One Get One Free), money off vouchers, and discounts.
Product Bundle Pricing: Here sellers combine several products in the same package. This also serves to move old stock. It’s a good way of moving old stock and slow-selling products. It’s also another form of promotional pricing.
Value Pricing: This is based on how much the customer perceives a product is worth. The objective is to make consumers believe they are getting the best value at a fair price. This type of pricing works well for ‘basic’ products that don’t have unnecessary details. Dollar stores are thriving due to value-based pricing on items that normally retail for more elsewhere.
Premium Pricing: Use a high price where there is a unique brand. This approach is used where a substantial competitive advantage exists, and the marketer is safe in the knowledge that they can charge a relatively higher price due to craftsmanship, pedigree and/or cache. Such high prices are predominately charged for prestigious and luxurious products and services.
Variable Prices vs. Fixed Prices: Also known as “Dynamic Pricing”, “supply/demand pricing”, or “time-based pricing.” It’s a pricing strategy in which businesses set flexible prices for products or services based on current market demands. Examples of this are hotel and airline pricing according to the time of year/season, happy hours at bars (downtime), and TV/radio commercials cost during peak hours. In 2020, due to the start of Covid-19, “dynamic pricing” made headlines when the prices of everyday goods such as toilet paper and hand sanitizer suddenly increased dramatically ─ though this was a combination of demand vs. supply, as well as exploitation by many resellers.
Geographical Pricing: Geographical pricing sees variations in price in different parts of the world. For example, rarity value, or where shipping costs increase the price. In some countries, there is more tax on certain types of products which makes them expensive, or legislation that limits how many products might be imported again raising the price.
The general pricing strategy to be applied will depend on different factors including product or service costs, demand, the types of buyers/target market, or customer perceived value, and external factors such as competition, the economy, and government regulations. Moreover, the consideration is taken with the current stage of its product life cycle along with its distribution and promotion considerations.
Raising prices prudently
First and foremost, be transparent. If you make the effort to explain to your customers that you have hired extra staff to deliver an improved product, or for any other reason, the customer may consider accepting the increase, otherwise, he or she may simply suspect that you are simply doing so out of greed. How you pitch and position your price increases can determine the success of your business. Equally important, when making changes to your pricing, make certain that your staff have bought into the price increases. By supporting this, it will be able to communicate it effectively to your customers.
Following are some low-key approaches to price increases.
In Consumer-Packaged Goods (CPG): Producers often reduce the product/packaging size rather than raise the price to cut costs. However, this can irritate customers as they feel cheated especially when done discreetly. For environmentalists, the optics of this tactic may be deemed effective if the brand can make a case that reducing product sizing results in reducing waste and under-use.
Create Additional Value: When raising your prices, differentiate from the competition by creating additional value for your clients. For example, if you want to stand out, you should go above and beyond in whatever you are doing so that your customer deems your brand and/or your offering as being superior to that of your competitors. You can add value to a product or service by improving the packaging or the design and adding a storyline. Moreover, refine the total customer & service experience which includes a seamless timely process and/or offer something extra without charge.
Regarding Hourly Pricing for Services: Charge per project rather than by the hour. This will place the clients at ease knowing the total cost is predictable regardless if a project takes a shorter or longer period to complete. It eliminates cost anxiety and lack of control over the actual hours undertaken and lodged by the services provider.
Consider Incremental Price Increases
By applying incremental price increases on a regular basis or on occasion, you will condition clients to expect it. Depending on what you are selling, such as a subscription service, providing adequate notice is the right thing to do. Stating the reason(s) for this imminent outcome is a plus (think transparency). This way, clients can adjust their budgets accordingly. Timing is important as your level of service and customer satisfaction feedback should align with any increase as appropriate justification.